The iliad summary in the tenth year of the trojan war, tensions are running high among the achaians a superancient name for the ancient greeks. Zeus begins to taunt hera, mocking her and athena for standing by while aphrodite rescues paris. Consisting of 15,693 lines of verse, the iliad has been hailed as the greatest epic of western civilization. The iliad sparknotes literature guide series by sparknotes. Menelaus almost spares the trojan adrestus life in exchange for ransom, but agamemnon. The iliad recounts a brief but crucial period of the trojan war, a conflict between the city of troy and its allies against a confederation of greek cities, collectively known as the achaeans. Below you will find a synopsis of some of the main events to which the iliad refers. The start of book 4 of homers the iliad shows the gods sitting around, enjoying refreshments, and watching the simmering tension between the trojans and the greeks down below. He meets the wounded captains agamemnon, odysseus, and diomedes. Murray 1 then was the gathering broken up, and the folk scattered, each man to go to his own ship. Sparknotes and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at. Gill is a freelance classics and ancient history writer. The battle is fierce, deaths reported by the speaker, as different trojans and greeks fight.
First, the priest chryses comes to ask their leader, king agamemnon, to release his daughter, whom agamemnon was holding captive. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of the iliad and what it means. Diores is struck by a rock thrown by pirous and speared, and pirous is speared as he springs away from his. The passages is designed to commemorate diomedes bravery and glory as a hero. Over the centuries, some scholars have asserted that no one poet could have presented the world of the iliad and that of the odyssey. The iliad sparknotes literature guide volume 35 sparknotes literature guide series paperback february 4, 2014 by sparknotes author, homer author 4. Book iv begins with an argument among the gods in which zeus taunts hera and athena about. The iliad is an epic poem by homer that tells the story of several weeks in the last year of the decadelong trojan war in the greek camp, agamemnon and achilles, the greeks. The battle narratives in books 5 and 6 and the very end of book 4 constitute the epics first descriptions of warfare, and, within the war as a whole, the first battles. Battles over fallen comrades become more significant in book 16. In book 3 of homers the iliad, menelaus and paris attempt to end the war by engaging in a single combat for helen, but the interference of the goddess.
Agamemnon, seeing blood, thinks that his brother has been mortally wounded and begins a long speech of lament and revenge. Homer finishes the book with descriptions of two deaths. Homers epic poem the iliad tells the story of the trojan war and the epic heroes and gods. The iliad book 4 summary this lesson provides an overview of book 4 of homers the iliad, in which the gods reignite the fighting between the greeks and the trojans. Written by harvard students for students, since its. She has a masters degree in linguistics and is a former latin teacher. Summary read an overview of the entire poem or a line by line summary and analysis. He also tells hector to return to the city in order to organize a trojan sacrifice to athena, if only shell pity troy. The achaeans, including great ajax and diomedes, kill several trojans. The iliad sparknotes literature guides by sparknotes. The poet invokes a muse to aid him in telling the story of the rage of achilles, the greatest greek hero to fight in the trojan war. Zeus argues that menelaus has won the duel and that the war should end as the mortals had agreed.
Litcharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in the iliad, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Humor in the iliad is most often associated with the gods but does occasionally show up among the humans, most often in connection with nestor. Greek audiences would have been familiar with the background of the story, and here a brief summary of events is. The trojan army marches from the city gates and advances to meet the achaeans. The iliad begins with the poet calling on the muse to sing of the wrath of achilleus and its consequences. Now the gods were sitting with jove in council upon the golden. See all 4 formats and editions hide other formats and editions. Zeus concedes that menelaos won the fight with paris see the summary of book 3 for details. Homer, iliad book 24 theoi classical texts library. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. When they arrive at sparta, telemachus and pisistratus are warmly welcomed. Summary and analysis book 4 the king and queen of sparta.
Goddess, sing me the anger, of achilles, peleus son, that fatal anger that brought countless sorrows on the greeks, and sent many valiant souls of warriors down to hades, leaving their bodies as spoil for dogs and carrion birds. Diores is struck by a rock thrown by pirous and speared, and pirous is speared as he springs away from his kill. The iliad sparknotes literature guide by homer making the reading experience fun. The rest bethought them of supper and of sweet sleep, to take their fill thereof. The king and queen recall some of odysseus exploits at troy but postpone serious talk until the next day. Homers epic poem the iliad tells the story of the trojan war and the epic heroes and gods, including achilles, hector, odysseus, athena, ares, paris. In book iii the war between the greeks and the trojans is personified in the handtohand duel between menelaos and paris the two men whose dispute over helen is the. Menelaus has two goddesses to aid him, hera of argos and alalcomenean athene.
Naturally, a goddess, athena, assists him in attaining this glory. Murray 1 now when they were marshalled, the several companies with their captains, the trojans came on with clamour and with a cry like birds, even as the clamour of cranes ariseth before the face of heaven, when they flee from wintry storms and measureless rain, and with clamour fly toward the streams of ocean, bearing slaughter and death to pigmy men. The conflict began when paris, the son of troys king priam, seized a willing helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, from the achaean king menelaus. The written version of the iliad presupposes a basic familiarity with the characters and mythological causes and effects of the trojan war. Book 4 of the iliad shows us the aloof and disdainful gods playing with the lives of mortals. He accuses athena and hera of protecting menelaus and aphrodite of protecting paris. It is a curious fact about the iliad that, for all its focus on the theme of death, it rarely shows characters longing for immortality. Download the free study guide and infographic for homers epic. Theyre todays most popular study guideswith everything you need to succeed in school. His descriptions of the deadly wounds fighters inflict on one another are brutal but also based on a consistent formula. Themes and colors key litcharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in the iliad, which. When a paper is due, and dreaded exams loom, heres the litcrit help students need to succeed.
Home english literature classic books the iliad book xxii navigate here note book i book ii book iii book iv book v book vi book vii book viii book ix book x book xi book xii book xiii book xiv book xv book xvi book xvii book xviii book xix book xx book xxi book xxii book xxiii book xxiv. Book 5 begins a passage of extended individual heroism for diomedes, something that the greeks called an aristeia. Agamemnon sends him rudely away, and chryses prays to apollo to punish the greeks. The catalogue gives the names of the leaders of each contingent, lists the settlements in the kingdom represented by the. This video provides an indepth summary and analysis of the plot, characters and themes of book 4 of homers epic poem the iliad. This contains a book by book summary and analysis of homers epic poem. In the iliad, many of the same characters as those found in the odyssey are filled with the vigor of youth and devoted to the honors of war or the thrills of lust. The iliad is an ancient greek epic poem by homer that was first published in 762 bc. Detailed quotes explanations with page numbers for every important quote on the site. To gain more material about this novel, go over the lesson titled the iliad book 3 summary.
Hector obeys, first driving his soldiers forward, then turning back to troy. This is one of the few times when this happens, and it is interesting that hektor says it out of excitement wanting the moment to last forever instead of despair at a moment passing. The gods, meanwhile, were gathered with zeus on the golden councilfloor, drinking toasts of nectar from gleaming cups that lovely hebe filled while they gazed down on troy cronos son was swift to taunt hera with mocking words, and said slyly. Structurally, book iii follows a pattern that homer uses many times in the iliad one scene is followed by a second that reflects the first and reinforces ideas within it. However, after heras impassioned argument against the trojans, zeus immediately sends athena to trick pandaros. Apollos priest chryses comes to the achaian camp and asks to ransom back his daughter chryseis, who has been captured.
Oct, 2017 the iliad book summary in under five minutes. Iliad study guide contains a biography of homer, literature essays, a complete etext, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Helenus, a seer and a son of priam, tells aeneas and hector to stand fast and to rally the troops. Chapter summary for homers the iliad, book 16 summary. About iliad iliad summary character list themes books 1 4 books 58 books 912 books 16 books 1720 books 2124 related links quiz 1 quiz 2 citations. He asks the other gods whether they should allow the two armies to resolve their differences peacefully, or, instead, stir up the fighting once again. Home english literature classic books the iliad book iv. When last we left the story at the end of book 2 of homers the iliad, the achaean forces, which had been camped outside the walls of troy for nine long years trying to defeat.
In book iv, however, agamemnons reaction to menelaos flesh wound is humorous. Iliad figured prominently in greek culture long before the epic was ever written down. The iliad, together with the odyssey, is one of two ancient greek epic poems traditionally attributed to homer. Book iv begins with an argument among the gods in which zeus taunts hera and athena about the possibility of ending the war at once because paris has lost the duel with menelaos. The battle continues between the achaeans and the trojans. In his tent, nestor discusses the battle with the wounded machaon. In book 24 of homers the iliad, priam of troy goes to the myrmidon camp and asks achilles for hectors body. The gods, meanwhile, were gathered with zeus on the golden councilfloor, drinking toasts of nectar from gleaming cups that lovely hebe filled while they gazed down on troy. In the very first line of the iliad, the poet addresses the muse, who inspires him with song, and asks her to sing through him the story of the wrath of the son of peleus, aka achilles. It is a portrait of the warrior at home, war forgotten as he watches his son play and talks with his wife. Well, the first place you could look is the enotes summary on homers iliad. Diomedes battles fiercely, and athena convinces ares that they both should stand aside and let the mortals battle it out on their own. Although we know little about the time period when it was composed and still less about the epics composer, the iliad s influence on subsequent generations of poets and writers is incalculable. The iliad sparknotes literature guide sparknotes literature guide series by homer.
They regard the battle between the greeks and trojans much as a group of americans would regard the super bowl. Telemachus is moved to tears by menelaus recollections of his friend odysseus. Zeus calls an assembly of the gods because he is angry about what is going on near troy. Most commentators consider this scene to be the most moving in the iliad. Paris, the trojan prince who precipitated the war by. This study guide and infographic for homers the iliad offer summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text.
The iliad is narrated from a thirdperson omniscient point of view. The end of book vi is the famous scene between hector and andromache and their infant son, astyanax. Homers epic poem the iliad tells the story of the trojan war and the epic heroes and gods, including achilles, hector, odysseus, athena, ares. The iliad sparknotes literature guide volume 35 sparknotes literature guide series paperback february 4, 2014 by sparknotes author, homer author.
Zeus suggests that the peace hold and helen go home with menelaus, both because troy is his favorite city and to mock. The poem is commonly dated to the 8th or 7th century bc, and many scholars believe it is the oldest extant work of literature in the greek language, making it the first work of european literature. The epic poem ends with the trojans burying hector. Chapter summary for homers the iliad, book 20 summary. Zeus suggests that the peace hold and helen go home with menelaus, both because troy is his favorite city and to mock heras and athenas passion for the death of trojans. The narrative begins nine years after the start of the war, as the achaeans sack a trojanallied town and capture two beautiful maidens, chryseis and briseis. Home english literature classic books the iliad book iv navigate here note book i book ii book iii book iv book v book vi book vii book viii book ix book x book xi book xii book xiii book xiv book xv book xvi book xvii book xviii book xix book xx book xxi book xxii book xxiii book xxiv. But hera, who has invested much in the achaean cause, wants nothing less than the complete destruction of troy. Iliad is greek for poem about ilium, which is an alternate name for the city of troy, the setting of the trojan war. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Although he alludes to the death of foot soldiers, homer primarily focuses on individual clashes between champions and other notable fighters. Pdf downloads of all 1296 litcharts literature guides, and of every new one we publish.1463 1195 1180 1115 696 725 624 1369 1190 210 50 1359 280 40 1499 1320 1144 748 822 1512 692 800 548 1185 921 857 1443 854 1075 1345 200 1508 1202 11 1181 63 129 1294 1253 796 699 683 826 1294 1142 273 1130 1180 1310