With the exception of flooding, the major drought stresses result in waterdeficit stress. Many studies have reported responses to drought stress in sorghum sorghum bicolor l. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and. Our data suggest that this drought response is linked to drought tolerance of the. Rnaseq reveals complicated transcriptomic responses to. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat. Response of plants to water stress plant science frontiers. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis reveals regulatory networks and key genes controlling barley malting quality in responses to drought stress open.
Among the environmental stresses, drought stress is one of the most adverse factors of plant growth and productivity. Stress and defense responses in relations to the production of plant secondary metabolites. The physiology of plant responses to drought science. Before d20, the height differences among the three drought groups were the smallest, and the height growth rates were.
The stressed plants exhibit striking responses by producing plant hormone abscisic acid aba, which plays an important role in tolerance against drought. Plant responses to integrated light and co2 control glase. Drought triggers a wide variety of plant responses, ranging from cellular metabolism to changes in growth. The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to. We report here the identification of a plantspecific protein, cost1 constitutively stressed 1, which attenuates autophagy under.
It has been established that drought stress is a very important limiting factor at the initial phase of plant growth and. Background and aim water is an increasingly scarce resource while some crops, such as paddy rice, require large amounts of water to maintain grain production. Cost1 regulates autophagy to control plant drought. The sheer diversity of plant species grown across climatic regions that include extreme dry conditions suggests that, in nature, plants have evolved to endure drought stress with an array of morphological.
Positive regulatory role of strigolactone in plant responses. We therefore concluded that elevated co2 mitigates the effects of drought by maintaining plant turgor and reduced hydrogen peroxide production. Among these stresses, drought stress is one of the most. Plant hormones are small molecules that regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to changing environmental conditions. Zhu department of plant sciences, university of arizona, tucson, az 85721, usa abstract drought, high salinity and freezing impose osmotic stress on plants.
Transcription factors and plants response to drought stress. Drought stress effects on medicinal and aromatic plants. Drought is one of the most devastating threats to agricultural sustainability worldwide. Here, to study responses to drought during reproductive development, we grew arabidopsis thaliana plants with limited water, under conditions that allowed the plants to initiate and complete reproduction. Physiological responses associated with water deficit stress in solanum lycopersicum rowland m kamanga 1, ernest mbega 2 and patrick ndakidemi 2 1 department of horticulture, lilongwe university of agriculture and natural resources, po box 219, lilongwe, malawi. There is evidence of a possible role of rootassociated fungi in drought adaptation. Ambavaram, and andy pereira virginia bioinformatics institute, virginia polytechnic institute and state university, blacksburg, virginia 24061 plant drought stress response and resistance are complex biological. Plant raflike kinases regulate the mrna population upstream. In this article we will discuss about the plant responses to drought stress. Nips also play an important role in drought and salt stress responses and in maintaining plant water balance. The plant hormone abscisic acid aba plays a major role in plant responses to stress. Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to osmotic.
Moench but little is known about its effects on panicle development. Plants immune system have evolved numerous stress detection. Mar 31, 2020 drought is one of the most devastating threats to agricultural sustainability worldwide. Tea plants, widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics, are often simultaneously exposed to drought and heat stresses. Among these stresses, drought stress is one of the most adverse factors of plant growth and productivity and considered a severe threat for sustainable crop production in the conditions on changing climate. Accumulation of these compounds helps the stressed cells in water retention 89 and in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the cell. Growth, physiology, and biochemical activities of plant. In vivo phenotyping for the early detection of drought stress. Pdf water deficit is considered the main limiting factor for the. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses.
Plant raflike kinases regulate the mrna population. Jun 29, 2017 a wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses. Although rapid production of aba in response to drought and salt stresses is essential to define aba as a stress hormone, an equally rapid catabolism of aba when such stresses are relieved is also essential in that role. Mar, 2014 in order to develop strategies to maintain plant productivity, it is essential to understand the various regulatory mechanisms that control and enhance adaptive responses to stress in different plant species. Pdf plant responses to drought and stress researchgate. Morphological and physiological plant responses to drought stress. Alternative splicing in tea plants was extensively. The pots on the right and left correspond to the droughttreated and wellwatered control plants, respectively. The plant height of three drought tolerance groups all increased first and then decreased as the plant growth, and the height growth rate followed the same pattern fig.
Plant host and drought shape the root associated fungal. Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to. Imagederived parameters reflect drought stress responses. The analysed literature shows that plants have evolved a number of adaptive mechanisms that allow the photochemical and biochemical systems to cope with. The discovery of novel genes, the analysis of their expression patterns in response to drought stress, and the. Environmental stresses, such as drought and high salinity, adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The contributions will serve as an invaluable source of information for researchers and advanced students in the fields of plant sciences, agriculture, ecophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Plant raflike kinases regulate the mrna population upstream of abaunresponsive snrk2 kinases under drought stress. Cost1 regulates autophagy to control plant drought tolerance. A sustainable approach presents an uptodate indepth coverage of drought and flooding stress in plants, including the types, causes and consequences on plant growth and development.
It discusses the physiobiochemical, molecular and omic approaches, and responses of crop plants towards water stress. The analysed literature shows that plants have evolved a number of adaptive mechanisms that allow the photochemical and biochemical systems to. Under stress conditions, phosphorylation of nips increased, indicating that, similarly to other aqps, these proteins may play a key role in plant stress responses 38. Oct 11, 2019 we identified and characterized the role of atpr5k2, a pr5like receptor kinase, in aba core signaling during plant responses to drought stress. Structural and functional responses to environmental stresses. To adapt to moisture gradients in soil, plants alter their physiology, modify root growth and architecture, and close stomata on their aboveground segments. Nevertheless, it is clear that the main consequences of the stress are to reduce the rate of cell division and expansion, which results in the plants forming smaller. Jan 14, 2014 environmental stresses, such as drought and high salinity, adversely affect plant growth and productivity. Drought triggers a wide variety of plant responses, ranging from cellular metabolism to changes in growth rates and crop yields. Alternative splicing as of genes plays crucial roles through increasing transcriptome diversity in plant stress responses. Although various phytohormones are known to be involved in regulation of plant stress responses, the role of strigolactone sl in this important process remains elusive. We report here the identification of a plant specific protein, cost1 constitutively stressed 1, which attenuates autophagy under. Plants in nature are continuously exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Ckx or at the stress onset using a dexamethasoneinducible poplhgr promoter dex.
Drought and heat stresses can influence the expressions of genes, and thereby affect the growth and development of plants. Pdf plant responses to drought stress researchgate. There has been extensive research on plant responses to drought stress at the morphological 2,3,4,5,6, physiological 2, 7,8,9,10,11,12,14. Water relations and growth response to drought stress of.
Plant responses to drought, acclimation, and stress tolerance. Recent plant physiology and biochemistry articles elsevier. The plant response to drought stress depends heavily on the duration and severity of the stress but is also influenced by the plants genotype and its developmental stage 2, 3. Ck downregulation was achieved by overexpression of the gene for ck deactivating enzyme cytokinin oxidasedehydrogenase ckx. We identified and characterized the role of atpr5k2, a pr5like receptor kinase, in aba core signaling during plant responses to drought stress. This is an open access article distributed under the creative commons attribution. Drought alone causes more annual loss in crop yield than all pathogens combined. Sinceplants started colonizing land,theyhad toadapt to. In the process of photosynthesis plants take carbon dioxide from the air and water from the roots and produce energy and sugars. Despite the compelling evidence of an important role of oxidized and reduced sulfurcontaining compounds during the response of plants to drought stress e. Recently published articles from plant physiology and biochemistry. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 2018, 18 2, 329343. Plant responses to drought stress in future climate co2. Understanding plant responses to drought from genes to.
Snf1related protein kinases 2 snrk2s are key regulators governing the plant adaptive responses to osmotic stresses, such as drought and high salinity. Physiological responses of seedling leaves affected by drought treatments and the water recovery period. Many of the phenotypic changes such as changes of biomass were readily detectable upon stress treatment, whereas others such as dynamics of water content were less obvious or too subtle to be discerned by eye figure 2b. These tissuespecific responses modify the flux of cellular signals, resulting in early flowering or stunted growth and, often, reduced yield. Models disagree on how to represent effects of drought stress on plant gas exchange. Studying the roles of calcium and magnesium in cell death in the serpentine native plant alyssum inflatum. Whole plant responses, key processes, and adaptation to drought stress. Drought dramatically affects plant growth and crop yield, but previous studies primarily examined responses to drought during vegetative development. Effects of drought stress on morphological characteristics. Ckx or at the stress onset using a dexamethasoneinducible poplhgr promoter.
The atpr5k2ox plants were hypersensitive to drought stress and tolerant of exogenous aba, suggesting that atpr5k2 mediates abadependent droughtstress signaling. Role of aba in integrating plant responses to drought and. Stress and defense responses in plant secondary metabolites. Evaluating maize phenotype dynamics under drought stress. Plant responses to drought, acclimation, and stress. Regulation of aquaporins in plants under stress biological. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of. Plants respond to the stress in part by modulating gene expression, which eventually leads to the restoration. Research into the plant response to water stress is becoming. Alternative splicing in tea plants was extensively triggered.
May 22, 2018 our phenotyping and hormonal study has characterized the role of cytokinins ck in the drought and recovery responses of arabidopsis thaliana. Abiotic stress adversely affects crop production worldwide, decreasing average yields for most of the crops to 50%. Plant resistance to drought relies on adaptive strategies based on the timing of phenophases and on the presence of structural traits mainly related to. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptive responses to drought can effectively allow for improved performance across a broad range of water environments. This special issue comprises a series of papers that develops the theme of plant responses to water stress, encompassing recent developments at the molecular level, through responses of photosynthesis and metabolism, to their application in crop selection and yield.
Our phenotyping and hormonal study has characterized the role of cytokinins ck in the drought and recovery responses of arabidopsis thaliana. Research into the plant response to water stress is becoming increasingly important, as. Predicting plant responses to drought sciencedaily. Although rapid production of aba in response to drought and salt stresses is essential to define aba as a stress hormone, an equally rapid catabolism of aba when such stresses are. Some models assume drought stress affects the marginal water use efficiency of plants marginal wue. By using different molecular and physiological approaches, we provide compelling evidence that, in arabidopsis, sl. Decrease in total dry weight was ascribed to significant decrease in plant growth, photosynthesis and canopy structure during drought stress in abelmoschus esculentum sankar et al. Whole plant responses, key processes, and adaptation to. A new study shows how plants vulnerability to drought varies across the landscape. Water stress responses in plants view all 11 articles. May 30, 2019 the transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat. Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to osmotic stress l. However, many factors beyond light influence photosynthesis and ultimately biomass accumulation including. Some of the most important responses of plants against drought stress are associated with the accumulation of minerals and enhanced synthesis of osmoprotectants, which are part of normal metabolism.
The atpr5k2ox plants were hypersensitive to drought stress and tolerant of exogenous aba, suggesting that atpr5k2 mediates abadependent drought stress signaling. Improved drought stress tolerance in arabidopsis by crispr. Positive regulatory role of strigolactone in plant. Stress response in plants comprises repertoire of molecular, cellular crosstalk and signaling responses initiated through the detection of specific or combined biotic or abiotic stress effect that may result in the induction of sm. Plant responses to water stress annals of botany oxford. Drought is the most important environmental stress that limits crop yield in a global warming world. Autophagy is known to be critical for plant responses to multiple stresses, including drought, but a direct link between drought tolerance and autophagy is still lacking. Molecular and physiological analysis of drought stress in. Drought stress is the most prevalent environmental factor limiting crop productivity 1, and global climate change is increasing the frequency of severe drought conditions 2. Phenotypic responses of b73 seedlings to drought stress ds and water recovery treatments at different time points a. Drought stress tolerance in plants, vol 1 physiology and biochemistry. Drought is a type of dehydration stress and largely restricts crop productivity and quality. Biochemical and molecular responses ecophysiological responses responses to drought under field conditions. The biochemical and molecular responses to drought is essential for a holistic perception of plant resistance mechanism to water.
Apr 17, 2020 drought alone causes more annual loss in crop yield than all pathogens combined. Apr 23, 2018 physiological responses to drought stress and water recovery. To investigate the physiological responses of maize seedlings to water deficit and recovery, the phenotypic traits, including rwc and leaf length, were evaluated at the following three timepoints. The contributions will serve as an invaluable source of information for researchers and advanced students in the fields of plant sciences, agriculture, ecophysiology, biochemistry and. Subsequently, two distinct types of anion channels, a slowactivating sustained stype, and a rapidtransient rtype, are activated and the anion efflux results in a depolarization of the plasma membrane. In vivo phenotyping for the early detection of drought. By modifying the production, distribution or signal transduction of these hormones, plants are able to regulate and coordinate both growth andor stress tolerance to promote survival or escape from environmental stress. At the whole plant level, the effect of stress is usually perceived as a decrease in photosynthesis and growth. In this article we will discuss about water stress or drought. Improving crop tolerance to drought stress is an effective strategy for the promotion of sustainable agriculture in most crop production regions worldwide. Atpr5k2, a pr5like receptor kinase, modulates plant. Drought stress tolerance in plants, vol 1 physiology and.969 481 366 801 1108 319 789 687 1292 193 455 1082 21 1071 544 1028 490 198 760 1517 1465 1106 277 1333 1472 1112 975 1285 1143 1283 1137 462